Markov-Ketten Ãbungen zu diesem Abschnitt
Eine Markow-Kette ist ein spezieller stochastischer Prozess. Ziel bei der Anwendung von Markow-Ketten ist es, Wahrscheinlichkeiten für das Eintreten zukünftiger Ereignisse anzugeben. Handelt es sich um einen zeitdiskreten Prozess, wenn also X(t) nur abzählbar viele Werte annehmen kann, so heißt Dein Prozess Markov-Kette. Zur Motivation der Einführung von Markov-Ketten betrachte folgendes Beispiel: Beispiel. Wir wollen die folgende Situation mathematisch formalisieren: Eine. mit deren Hilfe viele Probleme, die als absorbierende Markov-Kette gesehen Mit sogenannten Markow-Ketten können bestimmte stochastische Prozesse. Markow-Ketten. Leitfragen. Wie können wir Texte handhabbar modellieren? Was ist die Markov-Bedingung und warum macht sie unser Leben erheblich leichter?
Gegeben sei homogene diskrete Markovkette mit Zustandsraum S, ¨Ubergangsmatrix P und beliebiger Anfangsverteilung. Definition: Grenzverteilung. Die. Wertdiskret (diskrete Zustände). ▫ Markov Kette N-ter Ordnung: Statistische Aussagen über den aktuellen Zustand können auf der Basis der Kenntnis von N. Eine Markow-Kette ist ein spezieller stochastischer Prozess. Ziel bei der Anwendung von Markow-Ketten ist es, Wahrscheinlichkeiten für das Eintreten zukünftiger Ereignisse anzugeben.
Markov-Ketten NavigationsmenüDie Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten hängen also nur von dem aktuellen Zustand ab und nicht von der gesamten Vergangenheit. Und dieses muss für jeden Zustand gelten. Der gesuchte Vektor der Zustandswahrscheinlichkeiten ist nun ein Spaltenvektor. In irgendeinem Zustand muss die Click here Kette starten. Vor Spielbeginn legt der Spieler noch die folgenden Ausstiegsregeln fest: Er beendet das Spiel, wenn sein Kapital auf 10 Euro geschmolzen oder auf 50 Euro angestiegen ist. Hierbei unterscheidet man zwischen einer stetigen Zustandsmenge, welche überabzählbar unendlich viele Zustände enthält und einer diskreten Zustandsmenge, welche höchstens abzählbar unendlich viele Zustände enthält. Gut erforscht sind lediglich Harris-Ketten. W ähle zufällig ein Literal und ändere die Zustandsbelegung. Doch zunächst werden die für die Berechnung erforderlichen Begriffe erläutert. Starten wir im Zustand 0, so ist mit den obigen Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten. In diesem Prozess stellt jeder Knoten einen Zustand dar. Zu Beginn zum Zeitpunkt 0 ist jeder Zustand in diesem Check this out noch gleichwahrscheinlich, die Zustandsverteilung zu Beginn lässt sich direkt am Startvektor ablesen.
Markov-Ketten VideoBeweis durch Nachrechnen. Somit wissen wir nun. Ein wichtiger Spezialfall des zuletzt Genannten ist ein Zustandsraum mit endlich vielen Zuständen, auf welchen wir uns konzentrieren werden. Markovs Ungleichheit besagt:. Weiterhin benutzen wir X t als Synonym für X t. Dies bezeichnet man als Markow-Eigenschaft oder auch als Gedächtnislosigkeit. Meist entscheidet man sich dafür, künstlich eine Abfolge der gleichzeitigen Ereignisse einzuführen. Ordnet man nun die Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten zu einer Übergangsmatrix an, Gladbach Gegen Leverkusen erhält man. Mit der Gleichgewichtsverteilung können Sie nun berechnen, mit welcher Wahrscheinlichkeit sich der Aktienmarkt langfristig in welchem Zustand befindet. Zum Schluss überprüfen wir noch, ob wir tatsächlich eine gültige Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilung erhalten haben:. Die Gespenster halten sich click the following article am häufigsten in der Mitte auf, weniger oft am Rand und am seltensten in der Ecke. Wir teilen den Slots Casino Free in k Segmente.
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|Markov-Ketten||Die Verteilungsfunktion von X t wird dann nicht von weiter in der Vergangenheit liegenden Realisationen verändert:. Ein populäres Beispiel für eine zeitdiskrete Markow-Kette mit endlichem Zustandsraum ist die zufällige Irrfahrt engl. In irgendeinem Zustand muss die Markov Kette starten. In diesem Artikel möchten wir Ihnen das Konzept der Markov Kette vorstellen, dessen Grundlagen veranschaulichen something Wer War Der Erste TorschГјtzenkГ¶nig Der Bundesliga very Ihnen mehrere mögliche Anwendungsbereiche aufzeigen, in denen Sie mit einer gezielten statistischen Programmierung von Markov Ketten profitieren können.|
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|CULLEN DARTS||Wir teilen den Algorithmus in k Segmente. Ist es aber bewölkt, so regnet es mit Wahrscheinlichkeit 0,5 am folgenden Tag und Spiele Lost City Of Incas - Video Slots Online Wahrscheinlichkeit von 0,5 scheint die Sonne. Die Aufenthaltswahrscheinlichkeiten der Zustände sind proportional zur Anzahl der eingehenden Pfeile. Nach der Installation können wir das Paket mit library limSolve einbinden. Eine Markow-Kette ist darüber definiert, dass auch durch Kenntnis einer nur begrenzten Vorgeschichte ebenso gute Prognosen über die zukünftige Entwicklung Deutsch Quantum sind wie bei Kenntnis der gesamten Vorgeschichte des Prozesses. Diese Slots Casino Free sich dann in eine quadratische Übergangsmatrix zusammenfassen:. In unserem Beispiel mit endlichem Zustandsraum muss die Markov-Kette hierfür irreduzibel und aperiodisch sein.|
The following table gives an overview of the different instances of Markov processes for different levels of state space generality and for discrete time v.
Note that there is no definitive agreement in the literature on the use of some of the terms that signify special cases of Markov processes.
Usually the term "Markov chain" is reserved for a process with a discrete set of times, that is, a discrete-time Markov chain DTMC ,    but a few authors use the term "Markov process" to refer to a continuous-time Markov chain CTMC without explicit mention.
Moreover, the time index need not necessarily be real-valued; like with the state space, there are conceivable processes that move through index sets with other mathematical constructs.
Notice that the general state space continuous-time Markov chain is general to such a degree that it has no designated term.
While the time parameter is usually discrete, the state space of a Markov chain does not have any generally agreed-on restrictions: the term may refer to a process on an arbitrary state space.
Besides time-index and state-space parameters, there are many other variations, extensions and generalizations see Variations.
For simplicity, most of this article concentrates on the discrete-time, discrete state-space case, unless mentioned otherwise.
The changes of state of the system are called transitions. The process is characterized by a state space, a transition matrix describing the probabilities of particular transitions, and an initial state or initial distribution across the state space.
By convention, we assume all possible states and transitions have been included in the definition of the process, so there is always a next state, and the process does not terminate.
A discrete-time random process involves a system which is in a certain state at each step, with the state changing randomly between steps.
Formally, the steps are the integers or natural numbers , and the random process is a mapping of these to states. Since the system changes randomly, it is generally impossible to predict with certainty the state of a Markov chain at a given point in the future.
Markov studied Markov processes in the early 20th century, publishing his first paper on the topic in Other early uses of Markov chains include a diffusion model, introduced by Paul and Tatyana Ehrenfest in , and a branching process, introduced by Francis Galton and Henry William Watson in , preceding the work of Markov.
Andrei Kolmogorov developed in a paper a large part of the early theory of continuous-time Markov processes.
Random walks based on integers and the gambler's ruin problem are examples of Markov processes.
From any position there are two possible transitions, to the next or previous integer. The transition probabilities depend only on the current position, not on the manner in which the position was reached.
For example, the transition probabilities from 5 to 4 and 5 to 6 are both 0. These probabilities are independent of whether the system was previously in 4 or 6.
Another example is the dietary habits of a creature who eats only grapes, cheese, or lettuce, and whose dietary habits conform to the following rules:.
This creature's eating habits can be modeled with a Markov chain since its choice tomorrow depends solely on what it ate today, not what it ate yesterday or any other time in the past.
One statistical property that could be calculated is the expected percentage, over a long period, of the days on which the creature will eat grapes.
A series of independent events for example, a series of coin flips satisfies the formal definition of a Markov chain. However, the theory is usually applied only when the probability distribution of the next step depends non-trivially on the current state.
To see why this is the case, suppose that in the first six draws, all five nickels and a quarter are drawn. However, it is possible to model this scenario as a Markov process.
This new model would be represented by possible states that is, 6x6x6 states, since each of the three coin types could have zero to five coins on the table by the end of the 6 draws.
After the second draw, the third draw depends on which coins have so far been drawn, but no longer only on the coins that were drawn for the first state since probabilistically important information has since been added to the scenario.
A discrete-time Markov chain is a sequence of random variables X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , The possible values of X i form a countable set S called the state space of the chain.
However, Markov chains are frequently assumed to be time-homogeneous see variations below , in which case the graph and matrix are independent of n and are thus not presented as sequences.
The fact that some sequences of states might have zero probability of occurring corresponds to a graph with multiple connected components , where we omit edges that would carry a zero transition probability.
The elements q ii are chosen such that each row of the transition rate matrix sums to zero, while the row-sums of a probability transition matrix in a discrete Markov chain are all equal to one.
There are three equivalent definitions of the process. Define a discrete-time Markov chain Y n to describe the n th jump of the process and variables S 1 , S 2 , S 3 , If the state space is finite , the transition probability distribution can be represented by a matrix , called the transition matrix, with the i , j th element of P equal to.
Since each row of P sums to one and all elements are non-negative, P is a right stochastic matrix. By comparing this definition with that of an eigenvector we see that the two concepts are related and that.
If there is more than one unit eigenvector then a weighted sum of the corresponding stationary states is also a stationary state.
But for a Markov chain one is usually more interested in a stationary state that is the limit of the sequence of distributions for some initial distribution.
If the Markov chain is time-homogeneous, then the transition matrix P is the same after each step, so the k -step transition probability can be computed as the k -th power of the transition matrix, P k.
This is stated by the Perron—Frobenius theorem. Because there are a number of different special cases to consider, the process of finding this limit if it exists can be a lengthy task.
However, there are many techniques that can assist in finding this limit. Multiplying together stochastic matrices always yields another stochastic matrix, so Q must be a stochastic matrix see the definition above.
It is sometimes sufficient to use the matrix equation above and the fact that Q is a stochastic matrix to solve for Q.
Here is one method for doing so: first, define the function f A to return the matrix A with its right-most column replaced with all 1's.
One thing to notice is that if P has an element P i , i on its main diagonal that is equal to 1 and the i th row or column is otherwise filled with 0's, then that row or column will remain unchanged in all of the subsequent powers P k.
Hence, the i th row or column of Q will have the 1 and the 0's in the same positions as in P. Then assuming that P is diagonalizable or equivalently that P has n linearly independent eigenvectors, speed of convergence is elaborated as follows.
For non-diagonalizable, that is, defective matrices , one may start with the Jordan normal form of P and proceed with a bit more involved set of arguments in a similar way.
Then by eigendecomposition. Since P is a row stochastic matrix, its largest left eigenvalue is 1. That means. Many results for Markov chains with finite state space can be generalized to chains with uncountable state space through Harris chains.
The main idea is to see if there is a point in the state space that the chain hits with probability one. Lastly, the collection of Harris chains is a comfortable level of generality, which is broad enough to contain a large number of interesting examples, yet restrictive enough to allow for a rich theory.
The use of Markov chains in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods covers cases where the process follows a continuous state space.
Considering a collection of Markov chains whose evolution takes in account the state of other Markov chains, is related to the notion of locally interacting Markov chains.
This corresponds to the situation when the state space has a Cartesian- product form. See interacting particle system and stochastic cellular automata probabilistic cellular automata.
See for instance Interaction of Markov Processes  or . A Markov chain is said to be irreducible if it is possible to get to any state from any state.
This integer is allowed to be different for each pair of states, hence the subscripts in n ij. Allowing n to be zero means that every state is accessible from itself by definition.
The accessibility relation is reflexive and transitive, but not necessarily symmetric. A communicating class is a maximal set of states C such that every pair of states in C communicates with each other.
Communication is an equivalence relation , and communicating classes are the equivalence classes of this relation. The set of communicating classes forms a directed, acyclic graph by inheriting the arrows from the original state space.
A communicating class is closed if and only if it has no outgoing arrows in this graph. A state i is inessential if it is not essential.
A Markov chain is said to be irreducible if its state space is a single communicating class; in other words, if it is possible to get to any state from any state.
Otherwise the period is not defined. A Markov chain is aperiodic if every state is aperiodic. An irreducible Markov chain only needs one aperiodic state to imply all states are aperiodic.
Every state of a bipartite graph has an even period. A state i is said to be transient if, given that we start in state i , there is a non-zero probability that we will never return to i.
Formally, let the random variable T i be the first return time to state i the "hitting time" :. Therefore, state i is transient if.
State i is recurrent or persistent if it is not transient. Recurrent states are guaranteed with probability 1 to have a finite hitting time.
Recurrence and transience are class properties, that is, they either hold or do not hold equally for all members of a communicating class. Even if the hitting time is finite with probability 1 , it need not have a finite expectation.
The mean recurrence time at state i is the expected return time M i :. State i is positive recurrent or non-null persistent if M i is finite; otherwise, state i is null recurrent or null persistent.
It can be shown that a state i is recurrent if and only if the expected number of visits to this state is infinite:. A state i is called absorbing if it is impossible to leave this state.
Therefore, the state i is absorbing if and only if. If every state can reach an absorbing state, then the Markov chain is an absorbing Markov chain.
A state i is said to be ergodic if it is aperiodic and positive recurrent. In other words, a state i is ergodic if it is recurrent, has a period of 1 , and has finite mean recurrence time.
If all states in an irreducible Markov chain are ergodic, then the chain is said to be ergodic. It can be shown that a finite state irreducible Markov chain is ergodic if it has an aperiodic state.
More generally, a Markov chain is ergodic if there is a number N such that any state can be reached from any other state in any number of steps less or equal to a number N.
A Markov chain with more than one state and just one out-going transition per state is either not irreducible or not aperiodic, hence cannot be ergodic.
Further, if the positive recurrent chain is both irreducible and aperiodic, it is said to have a limiting distribution; for any i and j ,.
There is no assumption on the starting distribution; the chain converges to the stationary distribution regardless of where it begins.
A Markov chain need not necessarily be time-homogeneous to have an equilibrium distribution. Such can occur in Markov chain Monte Carlo MCMC methods in situations where a number of different transition matrices are used, because each is efficient for a particular kind of mixing, but each matrix respects a shared equilibrium distribution.
This condition is known as the detailed balance condition some books call it the local balance equation.
The detailed balance condition states that upon each payment, the other person pays exactly the same amount of money back.
This can be shown more formally by the equality. The assumption is a technical one, because the money not really used is simply thought of as being paid from person j to himself that is, p jj is not necessarily zero.
Kolmogorov's criterion gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a Markov chain to be reversible directly from the transition matrix probabilities.
The criterion requires that the products of probabilities around every closed loop are the same in both directions around the loop.
In some cases, apparently non-Markovian processes may still have Markovian representations, constructed by expanding the concept of the 'current' and 'future' states.
For example, let X be a non-Markovian process. Then define a process Y , such that each state of Y represents a time-interval of states of X.
Mathematically, this takes the form:. An example of a non-Markovian process with a Markovian representation is an autoregressive time series of order greater than one.
The evolution of the process through one time step is described by. The superscript n is an index , and not an exponent.
Then the matrix P t satisfies the forward equation, a first-order differential equation. The solution to this equation is given by a matrix exponential.
However, direct solutions are complicated to compute for larger matrices. The fact that Q is the generator for a semigroup of matrices.
The stationary distribution for an irreducible recurrent CTMC is the probability distribution to which the process converges for large values of t.
Observe that for the two-state process considered earlier with P t given by. Observe that each row has the same distribution as this does not depend on starting state.
The player controls Pac-Man through a maze, eating pac-dots. Meanwhile, he is being hunted by ghosts. For convenience, the maze shall be a small 3x3-grid and the monsters move randomly in horizontal and vertical directions.
A secret passageway between states 2 and 8 can be used in both directions. Entries with probability zero are removed in the following transition matrix:.
This Markov chain is irreducible, because the ghosts can fly from every state to every state in a finite amount of time.
Due to the secret passageway, the Markov chain is also aperiodic, because the monsters can move from any state to any state both in an even and in an uneven number of state transitions.
The hitting time is the time, starting in a given set of states until the chain arrives in a given state or set of states. The distribution of such a time period has a phase type distribution.
The simplest such distribution is that of a single exponentially distributed transition. By Kelly's lemma this process has the same stationary distribution as the forward process.
A chain is said to be reversible if the reversed process is the same as the forward process. Kolmogorov's criterion states that the necessary and sufficient condition for a process to be reversible is that the product of transition rates around a closed loop must be the same in both directions.
Strictly speaking, the EMC is a regular discrete-time Markov chain, sometimes referred to as a jump process.
Each element of the one-step transition probability matrix of the EMC, S , is denoted by s ij , and represents the conditional probability of transitioning from state i into state j.
These conditional probabilities may be found by. S may be periodic, even if Q is not. Markov models are used to model changing systems. There are 4 main types of models, that generalize Markov chains depending on whether every sequential state is observable or not, and whether the system is to be adjusted on the basis of observations made:.
A Bernoulli scheme is a special case of a Markov chain where the transition probability matrix has identical rows, which means that the next state is even independent of the current state in addition to being independent of the past states.
A Bernoulli scheme with only two possible states is known as a Bernoulli process. Research has reported the application and usefulness of Markov chains in a wide range of topics such as physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, music, game theory and sports.
Markovian systems appear extensively in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics , whenever probabilities are used to represent unknown or unmodelled details of the system, if it can be assumed that the dynamics are time-invariant, and that no relevant history need be considered which is not already included in the state description.
Therefore, Markov Chain Monte Carlo method can be used to draw samples randomly from a black-box to approximate the probability distribution of attributes over a range of objects.
The paths, in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, are Markov chains. Markov chains are used in lattice QCD simulations.
A reaction network is a chemical system involving multiple reactions and chemical species. The simplest stochastic models of such networks treat the system as a continuous time Markov chain with the state being the number of molecules of each species and with reactions modeled as possible transitions of the chain.
For example, imagine a large number n of molecules in solution in state A, each of which can undergo a chemical reaction to state B with a certain average rate.
Perhaps the molecule is an enzyme, and the states refer to how it is folded. The state of any single enzyme follows a Markov chain, and since the molecules are essentially independent of each other, the number of molecules in state A or B at a time is n times the probability a given molecule is in that state.
The classical model of enzyme activity, Michaelis—Menten kinetics , can be viewed as a Markov chain, where at each time step the reaction proceeds in some direction.
While Michaelis-Menten is fairly straightforward, far more complicated reaction networks can also be modeled with Markov chains.
An algorithm based on a Markov chain was also used to focus the fragment-based growth of chemicals in silico towards a desired class of compounds such as drugs or natural products.
It is not aware of its past that is, it is not aware of what is already bonded to it. It then transitions to the next state when a fragment is attached to it.
The transition probabilities are trained on databases of authentic classes of compounds. Also, the growth and composition of copolymers may be modeled using Markov chains.
Based on the reactivity ratios of the monomers that make up the growing polymer chain, the chain's composition may be calculated for example, whether monomers tend to add in alternating fashion or in long runs of the same monomer.
Due to steric effects , second-order Markov effects may also play a role in the growth of some polymer chains. Similarly, it has been suggested that the crystallization and growth of some epitaxial superlattice oxide materials can be accurately described by Markov chains.
Several theorists have proposed the idea of the Markov chain statistical test MCST , a method of conjoining Markov chains to form a " Markov blanket ", arranging these chains in several recursive layers "wafering" and producing more efficient test sets—samples—as a replacement for exhaustive testing.
MCSTs also have uses in temporal state-based networks; Chilukuri et al. Solar irradiance variability assessments are useful for solar power applications.
Solar irradiance variability at any location over time is mainly a consequence of the deterministic variability of the sun's path across the sky dome and the variability in cloudiness.
The variability of accessible solar irradiance on Earth's surface has been modeled using Markov chains,     also including modeling the two states of clear and cloudiness as a two-state Markov chain.
Hidden Markov models are the basis for most modern automatic speech recognition systems. Markov chains are used throughout information processing.
Claude Shannon 's famous paper A Mathematical Theory of Communication , which in a single step created the field of information theory , opens by introducing the concept of entropy through Markov modeling of the English language.
Such idealized models can capture many of the statistical regularities of systems. Even without describing the full structure of the system perfectly, such signal models can make possible very effective data compression through entropy encoding techniques such as arithmetic coding.
They also allow effective state estimation and pattern recognition. Markov chains also play an important role in reinforcement learning.
Markov chains are also the basis for hidden Markov models, which are an important tool in such diverse fields as telephone networks which use the Viterbi algorithm for error correction , speech recognition and bioinformatics such as in rearrangements detection .
The LZMA lossless data compression algorithm combines Markov chains with Lempel-Ziv compression to achieve very high compression ratios.
Markov chains are the basis for the analytical treatment of queues queueing theory. Agner Krarup Erlang initiated the subject in Numerous queueing models use continuous-time Markov chains.
The PageRank of a webpage as used by Google is defined by a Markov chain. Markov models have also been used to analyze web navigation behavior of users.
A user's web link transition on a particular website can be modeled using first- or second-order Markov models and can be used to make predictions regarding future navigation and to personalize the web page for an individual user.
Markov chain methods have also become very important for generating sequences of random numbers to accurately reflect very complicated desired probability distributions, via a process called Markov chain Monte Carlo MCMC.
In recent years this has revolutionized the practicability of Bayesian inference methods, allowing a wide range of posterior distributions to be simulated and their parameters found numerically.
Markov chains are used in finance and economics to model a variety of different phenomena, including asset prices and market crashes.
The first financial model to use a Markov chain was from Prasad et al. Hamilton , in which a Markov chain is used to model switches between periods high and low GDP growth or alternatively, economic expansions and recessions.
Calvet and Adlai J. Fisher, which builds upon the convenience of earlier regime-switching models. Dynamic macroeconomics heavily uses Markov chains.
An example is using Markov chains to exogenously model prices of equity stock in a general equilibrium setting.
Credit rating agencies produce annual tables of the transition probabilities for bonds of different credit ratings. Markov chains are generally used in describing path-dependent arguments, where current structural configurations condition future outcomes.
An example is the reformulation of the idea, originally due to Karl Marx 's Das Kapital , tying economic development to the rise of capitalism.
In current research, it is common to use a Markov chain to model how once a country reaches a specific level of economic development, the configuration of structural factors, such as size of the middle class , the ratio of urban to rural residence, the rate of political mobilization, etc.
Markov chains can be used to model many games of chance. Cherry-O ", for example, are represented exactly by Markov chains. At each turn, the player starts in a given state on a given square and from there has fixed odds of moving to certain other states squares.
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You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies.Markov Chains. Namespaces Article Talk. Tweedie 2 April Tweedie Markov Was Playzee Casino what and Stochastic Stability. If the Markov chain is time-homogeneous, then the transition matrix P source the same after each step, so the k -step transition probability can be computed as the k -th power of the transition matrix, P k. Credit rating agencies produce annual tables of the transition probabilities for bonds of different credit ratings. For convenience, the please click for source shall be a small 3x3-grid and the monsters move randomly in horizontal and vertical directions. The readable prose size is https://buyshoesjp.co/mit-online-casino-geld-verdienen/beste-spielothek-in-kreuznach-finden.php kilobytes. If the state space is finitethe transition probability distribution can be represented by a matrixcalled the transition matrix, with the Beste Spielothek in Kraudorf findenj th element of P equal to. Markov chains are used in lattice QCD simulations. By comparing this definition with that of an eigenvector we see that the two concepts are related and . Gegeben sei homogene diskrete Markovkette mit Zustandsraum S, ¨Ubergangsmatrix P und beliebiger Anfangsverteilung. Definition: Grenzverteilung. Die. Eine Markov Kette ist ein stochastischer Prozess mit den vielfältigsten Anwendungsbereichen aus der Natur, Technik und Wirtschaft. Zum Abschluss wird das Thema Irrfahrten behandelt und eine mögliche Modellierung mit Markov-Ketten gezeigt. Die Wetter-Markov-Kette. Markovkette Wetter. Wertdiskret (diskrete Zustände). ▫ Markov Kette N-ter Ordnung: Statistische Aussagen über den aktuellen Zustand können auf der Basis der Kenntnis von N.